The modern city of Miyakojima was established on October 1, 2005, from the merger of the old city of Hirara, the towns of Gusukube, Irabu and Shimoji, and the village of Ueno (all from Miyako District). As a result of the merger, Okinawa Prefecture has one remaining village.
As of December 2012 the city has an estimated population of 54,908 and a population density of 268.45 per km². The total area is 204.54 km². The city had 24,728 households. The mayor of Miyakojima is Toshihiko Shimoji (born 1945), who took office in the second mayoral election of the city in 2009.
The islands administed by the City of Miyakojima include: