Bullying sometimes appears in the form of comparison and calibration, it is a form of harm directed for the purpose of psychological abuse, the abuse is often verbal, but sometimes it may be accompanied by some exposure, display or physical attack, directed at psychological abuse by an individual or group towards an individual or group Others often have weaker abilities to defend themselves. Bullying may come in different forms; Verbally, physically, or even with gestures, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. Bullying can be defined in many different ways. Although the United Kingdom does not currently have a legal definition of bullying , some US states do have laws against it. Bullying is often used to coerce others through fear or threats. Bullying can be reduced by teaching children the social skills to successfully interact with the world. This will help them to be productive adults when they deal with some annoying people.
In schools and workplaces, a bully is also referred to as an annoying partner.
Bullying is often described as a form of harassment perpetrated by an abuser who has more physical or social power and dominance than the victim. Sometimes the victim of bullying is referred to as a target. Harassment can be verbal, physical or psychological. Sometimes bullies pick on people who are bigger or smaller than they are. Bullies hurt people both verbally and physically. There are many reasons for this. One of them is that the bullies themselves were the victim of bullying (eg, a child bullied who was abused at home, or adult bullies who were abused by their peers).
Many programs have started to combat bullying in schools using promotional speakers. Bullying is divided into three types — verbal bullying, physical bullying, and emotional bullying.
Norwegian researcher Dan Ullwes defined bullying as “the exposure of a person repeatedly and over time to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons.” He defined negative action as “when a person intentionally injures or disturbs the comfort of another person, through physical contact, or through words or in other ways.”
Bullying can happen anywhere humans interact with each other. This includes schools, workplaces, homes and neighborhoods. It is a common cause of migration. Bullying can exist between social groups, social classes, and even between countries.
Bullying is repeated aggressive behavior intended to intentionally harm another person, either physically or psychologically. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in certain ways in order to gain power at the expense of another person.
Acts considered bullying can include name calling, verbal or written abuse, exclusion from activities or social events, physical abuse, or coercion. Bullies may act in this way to be seen as likable or strong, or they may act in order to get attention. They may bully out of jealousy or because they have been subjected to such acts before.
The United States National Center for Education Statistics suggests that bullying can be divided into two categories:
Vicarious bullying, which is also known as social aggression.
Ross says that bullying involves a great deal of physical aggression such as shoving, poking, throwing things, slapping, choking, punching, kicking, hitting, stabbing, hair pulling, scratching, and biting.
He also indicated that social aggression or indirect bullying is characterized by threatening the victim with social isolation. This isolation is achieved through a wide variety of methods, including spreading rumours, refusing to mingle with the victim, bullying other people who mingle with the victim, and criticizing the victim’s style of dress and other perceived social markers (such as the victim’s ethnicity, religion, disability, etc.).
Ross (1998) outlined other forms of indirect bullying that are more complex and are mostly verbal, such as name-calling, the silent treatment, arguing with others until they give in, manipulation, fabricated rumors, lies, staring, giggling and laughing at the victim, Saying specific words will evoke a reaction from a previous event, mockery. The Anti-Child Bullying Act was passed in 2003 to help children who have been victims of this type of bullying by researching and publishing coping skills.
The effects of bullying can be very serious and even fatal. “There is a growing body of research showing that individuals, whether children or adults, who are persistently exposed to abusive behavior are at risk of stress-related illnesses, which in some cases can be Sometimes it leads to suicide.”
Victims of bullying can suffer long-term emotional and behavioral problems. Where bullying may cause feelings of loneliness, depression and anxiety and lead to low self-esteem, and increased exposure to disease.
The National Conference of State Legislatures said:
“In 2002, a report by the Central Intelligence Agency indicated that bullying played a significant role in many school shootings, and efforts should be made to eliminate this aggressive behavior.”
There is a strong link between bullying and suicide. Bullying leads to many suicides every year. It is estimated that between 15 and 25 children commit suicide each year in Britain alone because they are being bullied
Types of bullying
Bullying in schools
Bullying occurs throughout the school. It can occur in almost any part in or around the perimeter of a school building, although it most often occurs in physical education rooms, restrooms, entrances, bathrooms, school buses, bus waiting areas, and staffing classes. or school activity groups. Sometimes bullying in schools is from a group of students who have the ability to isolate one student in particular and gain the loyalty of some bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next victim. These bullies intimidate and deplete their target before physically assaulting them. Often, the targets of bullying in school are students who are often considered to be eccentric or different from the rest of their classmates, which makes it more difficult for them to deal with the situation.
Some children bully because they have been isolated for a period of time and have a strong desire to belong, but do not have the social skills to effectively keep friends (see social rejection). “When you are miserable, you need something more miserable than you are.” Perhaps this explains the negative behavior towards others. One student or group of students may bully another student or group of students, and bystanders may participate or watch, and most often this is because they are afraid of becoming the next victim, however, there is some research indicating that a large proportion of “normal” school children » He should not be assessed on the basis of school violence (a student harming another student), as negative or unacceptable as adults generally do, and may even derive pleasure from it. Thus, they see no reason to stop as long as it brings them happiness to a certain level.
Bullying can also be caused by teachers and the school system itself: there is a disparity in the power inherent in the system that can easily predispose to covert or covert abuse (relational or passive aggression), humiliation, or exclusion—even while maintaining an overt commitment to a policy Anti-intimidation
The phenomenon of school shootings is one of the phenomena related to bullying that has attracted a huge amount of media attention. Investigations by the US Secret Service found that more than two-thirds of attackers in school shootings “felt persecuted, harassed, threatened, assaulted, or injured by others prior to the incident” and refused to accept that the school shooters were “lonely” people and had changed Suddenly.” Another note: “It is clear that not every child who is bullied at school is at risk of targeted violence in schools.” The investigation report states that “a number of attackers have been bullied and harassed for a long and severe period. In these cases, the experience of bullying appears to play a major role in motivating the attack at school.” The report also notes that “in a number of cases, the bullied attackers describe their experience as bordering on torture.” He played a major role in a number of these school shootings and should strongly support the ongoing efforts to combat bullying in American schools.”
Anti-bullying programs are established to teach cooperation among students, as well as to train fellow supervisors in intervention techniques and conflict resolution, as a form of peer support.
American victims and their families have legal recourse, such as a lawsuit against a school or teacher for failing to adequately prevent discrimination based on gender, race, or other civil rights violations. Special education students who are victims of bullying can file a lawsuit against the school or school board under the supervision of the ADA or Section 504. In addition, some victims of school shootings file lawsuits against both the families of the killers and the schools.
According to the Workplace Bullying and Tragedy Institute, bullying is “a repetitive misbehavior harmful to health, verbal abuse, threatening, humiliating and intimidating behaviour, vandalism that interferes with work or a combination of these three elements.” Statistics show that the rate of bullying is 3 times greater than discrimination. illegal, and at least 1,600 times greater than workplace violence. The statistics also show that while one out of every 10,000 employees is a victim of violence at work, this means that one out of every six employees at work faces bullying in the workplace. Bullying is less common than sexual harassment, but it is no less common than verbal abuse, which is more frequent than bullying.
Unlike the form of bullying in schools which is more related to physical abuse, bullying at work often takes place within the established rules and policies of the organization and society. These actions are not necessarily illegal, and may not even be against company regulations, however the damage to the targeted employee and workplace morale is clear.
Bullying is called mobbing, especially when it is perpetrated by a group in the workplace, and in political circles it can also be known as “job assassination”.
According to Canadian educator Bill Belsey, cyberbullying is:
“Who uses information and communication technologies such as emails, mobile phones, text and instant messages, defamatory personal websites, blogs and online games to support deliberately repetitive, hostile behavior by an individual or group, intended to harm others.” – Cyberbullying: An Emerging Threat to the Always On Generation
Bullies can create blogs to intimidate victims worldwide.
Chauvinism occurs when one country imposes its will on another. This is usually done with force or military threat.