Jaén Cathedral, Andalucia, Spain

Jaén Cathedral, Andalucia, Spain
Jaén Cathedral, Andalucia, Spain

La Santa Iglesia Catedral de la Asunción de la Virgen de Jaén es una catedral de estilo principalmente renacentista, concebida en el siglo XVI tal y como se observa en la actualidad. Se ubica en la Plaza de Santa María, frente al Ayuntamiento de Jaén y el Obispado. En su interior se custodia, entre otras obras de arte y objetos religiosos, la reliquia del Santo Rostro o “La Verónica”, alojada en la capilla mayor, y que se expone ante el público todos los viernes. La Catedral de Jaén aspira en la actualidad a convertirse en Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

Sobre una antigua mezquita aljama, fue convertida en iglesia mayor, cuando Fernando III el Santo en el año 1249, reconquistó la ciudad de Jaén y mandó consagrarla a don Gutierre Ruiz (1245-1249), obispo de Córdoba, a la vez que trasladaba la sede episcopal de Baeza a Jaén. Se proyectó inicialmente en estilo gótico. Tras sufrir graves desperfectos por la incursión árabe en el año 1368, se tiene que derribar para continuar otra nueva bajo el mandato del obispo Nicolás de Biedma.

Hay que volver a reconstruir a partir de 1494, bajo el mandato del obispo Luis Osorio, debido a la inconsistencia de sus muros (en el año 1500 fue requerido Enrique Egas para hacer una tasación) con tan mala fortuna que en 1525 el cimborrio sufre un derrumbe, es cuando se vuelve a emprender la gran reforma para cambiar a la actual construcción renacentista.

Esta adaptación se fue realizando en diferentes fases, de ahí los diferentes estilos visibles. De hecho, restos de la catedral gótica pueden observarse principalmente en la parte baja de su cara oriental, perteneciendo a ellos la famosa “Mona” o Bafumet, que, tocada con un turbante, se observa sentada sobre una esquina del friso gótico.

Aunque la obra renacentista duró 164 años ( desde 1540 hasta 1724) y fueron muchos los arquitectos que dirigieron su construcción, presenta una excepcional armonía en sus diferentes estilos. Uno de los arquitectos que más influyeron en la obra fue el renacentista Andrés de Vandelvira, nacido en 1509; en su proyecto de la catedral, dirigió personalmente las obras de la sacristía, sala capitular y cripta o panteón, ya que la construcción de la catedral renacentista se empezó por la cabecera. La sacristía está considerada como una de las arquitecturas más originales dentro del renacimiento español, cuya composición de columnas y arcos resuelve perfectamente todos los problemas de luz y espacio. A pesar de haber tenido a su lado al escultor Esteban Jamete para la realización de la parte escultórica de sus obras por la provincia, se le atribuye en la Catedral de Jaén la realización del Ecce Homo, que se encuentra en el testero de la parte derecha del crucero.



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